Morphofunctional condition of young female swimmers with different types of development
Topicality. The main purpose of the training process is achieving the necessary level of development of leading functions at all stages of long-term training. For planning the long-term preparation and assessment of the athlete’s prospects, it is necessary taking into account sexual characteristics, individual rates and terms of biological maturation. The purpose of the research is to analyze the indicators of morphofunctional status of female athletes engaged in swimming. Materials and methods of the research. The survey involved 106 female athletes of various sports qualifications engaged in swimming. 12 surveys were conducted during the 2016−2019 in accordance to full anthropological program. Anthropometric measurements, indicators of the components of body mass, body proportions, biological age, morphofunctional condition of swimmers were determined in the research using special scales for assessment of the morphofunctional preparedness the girls (11−18 years of age) for swimming. The research results. As a result of the conducted research, the parameters of total, transverse, grasp body sizes, indicators of components of body mass composition and functional indicators of qualified female athletes of 11−16 years were established. A high increase in length, body weight and chest circumference was observed in the age of 13 to 14 years. It was revealed that 5,48 % of women athletes engaged in swimming are low morphological status, 47,26 % average, 36,36 % and 10,90 % girls have high morphological status. The obtained results indicate that in the studied age groups, 52,8 % female athletes have got retarded type of development, 31,6 % of them are with normal (average) type of development and 15,6 % female athletes – with accelerated type of development. Conclusions. Based on the obtained data, the level of morphofunctional condition of the studied female athletes was determined. Taking these results into account will allow to evaluate the prospects of female swimmers and to plan their long-term training in the most rational way.
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