Aerobic Physical Activity in Nature as Compensation for Type A Behavior
The aim of this theoretical article is to point out on the bases of scientific findings the relationship between aerobic physical activity in nature as compensation for the type A behavior. Type A behavior as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) continues to be an important subject of study in today´s society. Physical activities in the nature, also called green exercise, are of significant relevance in the context of human health research, given our present lifestyle. They address mainly the aerobic regime of physical activities as a prevention of many diseases through improvements in cardiovascular system and skeletal muscles. The authors focused on the issues related to the types A and B of personality behavior developed by Mayer Friedman and Ray H. Rosenman. Aerobic exercise activities, as significant prevention of heart diseases, deal with the compensation of precisely the A type risk behavior. The authors clarify this premise on practical examples. Even with the passage of several decades this issue has not been sufficiently researched. Its application in real life is quite justifiable due to increasing environmental changes and sedentary lifestyle. This article points out how different findings need to be linked in practice as a part of the necessary interdisciplinary collaboration of experts in the areas of medicine, psychology and sports.
Barton, Jo., Prett,y J. N. (2010). What is the Best Dose of Nature and Green Exercise for Improving Mental Health? A Multi-Study Analysis. Environ Sci Technol, 44(10): 3947–3955. doi.org/10.1021/es903183r.
Keniger, L. E., Kevin, J., Gaston, K. J., Irvine, K. N., Fuller, R. A. (2013). What are the Benefits of Interacting with Nature? IJERPH, 10 (3): 9132010; 935. doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10030913.
Hartig, T., Kaiser, F. G., Strumse, E. (2007). Psychological restoration in nature as a source of motivation for ecological behaviour. Environ Conserv, 34 (4): 291-299.
Pretty, J., Peacock, J., Sellens, M., Griffin, M. (2005). The mental and physical health outcomes of green exercise. Int J Environ Heal R., 15 (5): 319–337. doi.org/10.1080/09603120500155963.
Howley, E. T. (2001). Type of activity: resistance, aerobic and leisure versus occupational physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc, Jun, 33 (6): 364-369.
Burton, Jo., Bragg, R., Wood, C., Pretty, J. (2016). Green Exercise: Linking Nature, Health and Well-being. New York: Routledge.
Miller, G. A., Chambers, J. (2013). Annual Report. Relevance. Reach. Impact. American Hiking Society.
Sturm, J., Plöderl, M., Fartacek, C., Kralovec, K., Neunhäuserer, D., Niederseer, D., Hitzl, W., Niebauer, J., Schiepek, G., Fartacek, R. (2012). Physical exercise through mountain hiking in high-risk suicide patients. A randomized crossover trial. Acta Psychiatr. Scand, 126 (6): 467−475. doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2012.01860.x.
Niedermeier, M., Einwanger, J., Hartl, A., Kopp, M. (2017). Affective responses in mountain hiking − A randomized crossover trial focusing on differences between indoor and outdoor activity. Plos One, 12 (5): e0177719. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177719.
Niedermeier, M., Hartl, A., Kopp, M. (2017). Prevalence of Mental Health Problems and Factors Associated with Psychological Distress in Mountain Exercisers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Austria. Front Psychologia, 8 (1237): 1-8.
Q Li. (2010). Effect of forest bathing trips on human immune function. Environ Health Prev Med, 15 (1): 9-17. doi.org/10.1007/s12199-008-0068-3.
National Institute of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The Seventh Report on the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. National High Blood Pressure Education Program. U. S. Department of Health and Human Service. NIH Publication. 2003; 03-5233: 53.
Benjamin, E.J. et al. (2017). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2017 Update: A Report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 7;135(10):e146-e603. doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000485.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Be Active, Healthy, and Happy!, ODPHP Publication. 2008; 2c: 61. No U0036.
Paluska, S. A., Schwenk, T. L. (2000). Physical activity and mental health: current concepts. Sports Med, 29 (3): 167-180.
Biddle, S. (2016). Physical activity and mental health: evidence is growing. World Psychiatry, 15 (2): 176–177. doi.org/10.1002/wps.20331911759.
Kelley, G. A., Kelley, K. S. (2000). Progressive resistance exercise and resting blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertension, 35: 838-843.
Whelton, S. P., Chin, A., Xin, X., He, J. (2002). Effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med, 136: 493-503.
Morris, J. N., Hardman, A. E. (1997). Walking to health. Sports Med., 23: 306–332. doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199723050-00004.
Hanson, S., Jones, A. (2015). Is there evidence that walking groups have health benefits? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med., 49 (11): 710–715. doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-094157.
Robertson, R., Robertson, A., Jepson, R., Maxwell, M. (2012). Walking for depression or depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mental Health end Physical Activity, 5 (1): 66−75. doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa. 2012.03.002.
Gusi, N., Reyes, M., Gonzalez-Guerrero, J., Herrera, E., Garcia, J. (2008). Cost-utility of a walking programme for moderately depressed, obese, or overweight elderly women in primary care: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 8:231. doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-8-23.
Burtscher, M., Ponchia, A. (2010). The Risk of Cardiovascular Events During Leisure Time Activities at Altitude. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 52 (6): 507–511. doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2010.02.008.
Espnes, G. A., Byrne, D. (2016). Type A Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease. In: Alvarenga M, Byrne D. (Eds.). Handbook of psychocardiology. Springer Singapore, 1-20.
Rosenman, R. H., Friedman, M., Straus, R., Wurm, M., Kositchek, R., Hahn, W., Werthessen, N. T. (1964). A Predictive Study of Coronary Heart Disease The Western Collaborative Group Study. JAMA, 189 (1): 15–22. doi.org/10.1001/jama.1964.03070010021004.
Rosenman, R. H., Brand, R. J., Jenkins, D., Friedman, M., Straus, R., Wurm, M. (1975). Coronary heart disease in Western Collaborative Group Study. Final follow-up experience of 8 1/2 years. JAMA, 233 (8): 872–877. DOI:10.1001/jama.1975.03260080034016.
Brand, R. J., Rosenman, R. H., Sholtz, R. I., Friedman, M. (1976). Multivariate prediction of coronary heart disease in Western Collaborative Group Study compared to findings of the Framingham study. Circulation, 53 (2): 348-355.
Skorodenský, M. (1991). Psychologické a rizikové faktory ischemickej choroby srdca [Psychological and risk factors in ischemic heart disease.] Bratislava: Veda, 193 p. (Slovak).
Jenkins, C. B., Rosenman, R. H., Friedman, M. (1967). Development of an objective psychological test for determination of the coronary – prone behavior pattern in employed men. J Chron Dis, 20 (6): 371–379. doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681(67)90010-0.
Institute of Medicine (US). Cardiovascular Disability. Updating the Social Security Listings. Committee on Social Security Cardiovascular Disability Criteria. Washington (DC). The National Academies Press (US). 2010. doi.org/10.17226/12940.
Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P. Job burnout. In: Fiske ST, Schacter DL, Zahn-Waxler C. (Eds.). (2001). Annu Rev Psychol, 52: 397–422. doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397.
James, K.E., Sidin, J.P. (2017). Revisit the effect of type a and b personality, and its effect on job-related stress in the organization. Proceedings of International Conference on Economics, 334–344.
Thompson, P. D., Buchner, D., Piña, I. L., Balady, G. J., Williams, M. A. et el. (2003). Exercise and Physical Activity in the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease. A Statement From the Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention) and the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Subcommittee on Physical Activity). Circulation, 107(24): 3109-3116.
Nystoriak, M. A., Bhatnagar, A. (2018). Cardiovascular Effects and Benefits of Exercise. Front. Cardiovasc. Med, 5: 135. doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2018.00135.
Wen, C. P., Wai, J. P., Tsai, M. K., Yang, Y. C., Cheng, T. Y., Lee, M. C., et al. (2011). Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. Lancet, 378:1244–1253. doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60749-6.
Blumenthal, J. A., Rejeski, W. J., Walsh-Riddle, M., Emery, C. F., Miller H. et. аl. (1988). Comparison of high- and low-intensity exercise training early after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol, 1 (61): 26-30.
Seraganian, P., Roskies, E., Hanley, J. A., Oseasohn, R., Collu, R. (1987). Failure to alter psychophysiological reactivity in type and men with physical exercise or stress management programs. Psychol Health, 1, 3: 195-213.
Stejskal, T. (1999). Telesná výchova prostriedkom alebo cieľom? [Is Physical Education the Means or the Goal?]. Tělesná výchova a sport mládeže [Physical Education and Sport of Youth], 65 (2): 12–14. (Slovak).
Chandola, T., Britton, A., Brunner, E., Hemingway, H., Malik, M. et. аl. (2008). Work stress and coronary heart disease: what are the mechanisms? Eur Heart J., 29 (5), 640–648. doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehm584.
Irvine, J., Lyle, R. C., Allon, R. (1982). A personality as psychopathology: Personality correlates and an abbreviated scoring system. J Psychosom Res, 26 (2): 183−189. doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999(82)90035-6.