Theoretical and pedagogical prerequisites for the development of physical education of children and young people on Polish lands (the second half of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century)
The article is devoted to the problems of the development of theoretical thought of Polish scientists, doctors and public figures in the field of physical education of children and young people in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century. The basic concepts of physical education in the system of preschool and school education on Polish lands in this historical period are analysed. The attention of Polish researcher during that time was mainly focused on the introduction of systematic physical education classes in all types of schools, use of mobile games in the educational process, the popularization of physical education in kindergartens, the involvement of parents in the process of physical education of children in the family, vocational training and training of physical education teachers and others. The purpose of the study. Determination of the main directions and trends in the development of theoretical thought of Polish scientists, doctors and public уfigures in the second-half of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century in the field of physical education of children and youth. Research methods – the study of literary sources, archival documentary materials, theoretical analysis and synthesis of the data. The results of the study. In the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries the problem of physical education became an integral element of the programs of pedagogical congresses of Polish teachers, which drew attention to the exceptionally important role of physical education in the education of the younger generation, as well as in raising the general health level of the population. Polish scientists, educators, doctors took an active part in number of European congress and forums that were held in the early twentieth century, which addressed the problems of physical education, health and hygiene of children and young people. The 9th congress of Polish teachers and biologists, which took place in 1900 in Krakow, played a significant role in popularizing the physical education of children and youth in the Polish society. For the first time during such forums, a special section was organized on the subject of physical education of children and youth. Findings. The analysis made suggests that despite the many difficulties in the process of organizing physical education in preschool and school education on Polish lands during this historical period (weak material basis for conducting physical education classes; lack of trained teachers of this subject; conservatism of the management of some schools). The practical development of physical education of the younger generations has made significant progress compared to previous decades.
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