Physical Training Modeling of 10–12-year-old Judoists Based on Somatotypes
The Current Relevance of the Research is stipulated by the changes in the training process of 10-12 years old judoists, in terms of differentiated approach based on the constitutional characteristics of athletes, taking into account the sensitive periods of individual motor qualities development.The Objective of the Research: to create and scientifically substantiate individual models of judo's physical fitness at the stage of preliminary basic training during the preparatory period of the annual macrocycle based on the analysis of morphological and functional features. Methods of Research: pedagogical experiment, medical and biological methods (somatoscopy, somatometry and somatotyping), motor tests - testing of general and special physical training, mathematical methods of statistics. Results: 88 judoists of 10-12 years old participated in the pedagogical experiment. On the basis of anthropometric studies and methods of somatotyping, features of the body structure of young athletes and specific somatotypes have been studied. 32% of the participants had thoracic type of body structure, 34.3% - muscular and 32% - digestive type of body structure. Differences in the manifestation of motor qualities among judoists of 10-11 years old and 11-12 years old, depending on their type of physique, are revealed. Judoists of muscular somatotype, as compared with digestive and thoracic, show better results in motor tests. In particular, 10-11 years old judoists have the best indicators of the wrestler, overall and strength durability, and flexibility. Judoists of 11-12 years old have advantages comparing with the representatives of other somatotypes in the manifestation of speed-strength endurance, speed strength, overall endurance, agility, strength and flexibility. The obtained results formed the basis for the distribution of young judoist for somatotypes in order to create differentiated training programs. Conclusions: the analysis and presented models of physical training have become the background for the development of evaluation criteria for the level of general and special physical qualities development. It allows differentiated assessment and management of the training process of young judoists at the stage of preliminary basic training.
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