The Views of Andrzej Snyadetsky on the Development of the Theory and Practice of Physical Education in Poland
Introduction. The article is devoted to the educational activities of outstanding polish scientist Andrzej Snyadetsky. The formation and development of the system of physical education of children and young people on Polish lands at the end of the XVIII century took place in extremely difficult political and economic conditions, which was the result of the loss of national independence. Polish lands after the end of the Napoleonic wars were divided between the three countries Austria-Hungary, Russia and Prussia, which resulted with crisis in economic, cultural and educational development. A characteristic feature of the Polish education of that time, including the physical education of the young generation, was the cancellation of the functioning of organizational and educational forms in various types of educational institutions, which were under the careful supervision of foreign administrations. It was during this difficult period of Polish history that the emerging Polish scientist Andrzej Snyadetsky had to live and work. Research Methods. The study of literary sources, documentary materials, theoretical analysis and synthesis of the results. The results of the Study. Andrzej Sniadecki (1768–1838), a chemist, biologist, doctor, but also a philosopher and teacher was a prominent representative of the enlightenment period, who is considered the father in Poland of chemical sciences, hygiene, dietology and physical education. One of the most important works of Snyadetsky, is the one in which he expressed his civil position and concern for the future of the Polish people. First of all about its biological potential is its work «On the physical education of children», the publication of which began in 1805. А. Snyadetsky was critical of the domestic system of upbringing and education, both among the gentry and among the petty-bourgeois families. In his criticism А. Shyadetsky devoted particular attention to the absence of clear principles and legal norms in home education, the one-sided process of education aimed mainly at spiritual development, disregarding the physical development of children and young people. In his work A.Snyadesky presented his concept and education program. Conclusions. According to the scientist, the key role in the physical activity in fresh air, as well as stabbing and body hygiene. The view of the scientist on the upbringing of children and young people effectively integrated natural, medical and pedagogical knowledge. Significant role on the formation and development of the views of A. Snyadetsky had the ideas of the French enlighteners, especially J.-J. Rousseau.
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